Both in the summary and also the paraphrase we have quoted Curtis’s «clustering together in a ball that is dense» a phrase that lies in the centre of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in every language other than Curtis’s would be pointless since her description is admirably precise.
Quoting Authoritative Language
You shall also want to make use of quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting a specialist or some prominent political, artistic, or figure that is historical you raise your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, as well as your readers will have a tendency to perceive that given information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you’ve made, along with your statement gets to be more credible to your readers. As an example, in an essay you could possibly write regarding the importance of reading well, you can take advantage of a passage from Thoreau’s Walden:
It «is a noble exercise,» writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, «and something that may task the reader more than any exercise that the customs regarding the day esteem. A training is required by it such as the athletes underwent. Books must certanly be read as deliberately and reservedly because they were written.»
By quoting a philosopher that is famous essayist about the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not only would you regard reading to be an art that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential thinkers that are american. The quotation has elevated the known standard of your projects.
You can also quote to advantage figures that are well-respected’ve written or spoken about the subject of one’s paper. The following is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler relates to a physicist and an astronaut:
a couple of scientists – notably James Van Allen, discoverer associated with Earth’s radiation belts – have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive attention to unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this could be much more cost-effective.
Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and shuttle that is former, says, «It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there is a space that is manned, the funding on space science was zero. Now it really is about $500 million a year»
Note, first, that into the paragraph that is first has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen to the discussion on space flight. When you look at the paragraph that is second Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend legitimacy and authority towards the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts about the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both in order for their qualifications to speak on the subject are recognized to all:
James Van Allen, discoverer associated with Earth’s radiation belts .
Joseph Allen, physicist and shuttle astronaut that is former .
The phrases in italics are known as appositives. Their function is always to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any details about somebody who can be expressed within the following sentence pattern could be converted to an phrase that is appositive
James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth’s radiation belts.
James Van Allen has decried the expense regarding the space program that is manned
James Van Allen, discoverer associated with the Earth’s radiation belts, has decried the expense of this manned space program.
Use appositives to spot authors that you quote.
Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences
Quoting just the right part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need
As you’ve seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative. Now we shall put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the subject of college sports you have run into the next, published by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago:
If athleticism is detrimental to students, players, alumni and the public, it is a whole lot worse for the universites and colleges themselves. They want to be educational institutions, but they can not. The story of the halfback that is famous only regret, as he bade his coach farewell, was that he had not learned to read through and write is most likely exaggerated. But we should admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, «friends,» presidents and even professors has tended to relax standards that are academic. These gentry often disregard the proven fact that a college shouldn’t be thinking about a fullback that is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double standard that is educational exist without having the knowledge and also the tacit approval, at least, for the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as «faculty representatives» from the college boards that are athletic. 4
Guess that with this paragraph that is entire find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion. You may want to quote an element of the following sentence:
These gentry often overlook the known undeniable fact that a college shouldn’t be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit.
Incorporating the Quotation to the Flow of your very own Sentence
when you’ve selected the passage you intend to quote, work the materials into the paper in as natural and fluid a fashion as you are able to. Here’s how we would quote Hutchins:
Robert Hutchins, a former president associated with University of Chicago, asserts that pay for homework help «a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.»
Observe that we’ve used an appositive to spot Hutchins. And now we’ve used just the area of the paragraph – a single clause – that we thought memorable adequate to quote directly.
Avoiding Freestanding Quotations
A quoted sentence must not the stand by position itself – such as the example that is following
Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. «These gentry often overlook the proven fact that a college should not be enthusiastic about a fullback who is a half-wit.» But this type or sorts of thinking is bad for the university and also worse for the athletes.
Even you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation. Introduce the quotation by attributing the foundation in some other an element of the sentence – beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write:
Relating to Robert Hutchins, «These gentry often disregard the proven fact that a college really should not be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit.»
«These gentry,» asserts Robert Hutchins, «often disregard the proven fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback that is a half-wit.»
Another alternative is always to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon:
But Robert Hutchins disagrees: «These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be thinking about a fullback that is a half-wit.»
Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as in the examples above).
When sources that are attributing attempt to vary the standard «states,» «writes,» «says,» an such like. Other, stronger verbs you may consider: «asserts,» «argues,» «maintains,» «insists,» «asks,» and even «wonders.»
Using Ellipsis Marks
Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you wish to quote the beginning and end of a passage not its middle – as was the outcome when we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here’s area of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a sentences that are few
to read through well, that is, to learn true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and another which will task your reader significantly more than any exercise which the customs associated with day esteem. It needs a training including the athletes underwent, the intention that is steady of this life time to the object. Books needs to be read as deliberately and reservedly while they were written. 5